Alexandria, Egypt

Alexandria, Egypt: Where history comes alive

Situated gracefully on the Mediterranean shoreline, Alexandria unfolds as a captivating mosaic of Egypt’s diverse history, cultural richness, and maritime allure. Ranking as the second-largest city in this ancient land, Alexandria effortlessly merges the past with the present. Presenting a captivating narrative of its storied legacy and thriving contemporary vibrancy. Immerse yourself in this digital odyssey as we embark on an expedition through Alexandria, a city that has indelibly shaped Egypt’s story. From the legendary Library of Alexandria to the lively Corniche, this blog post beckons you to explore the unique charm of Alexandria, where tales of bygone eras intermingle with the modern, creating an ever-evolving symphony of allure and sophistication.

Alexander the Great founding Alexandria:

In the year 331 BCE, having secured victories across the vast Persian Empire, Alexander directed his aspirations toward Egypt. Fueled by ambition and strategic acumen, he envisioned a city that would stand as a testament to his conquests and serve as a nexus between the Mediterranean and the Nile. The chosen canvas for this grand vision was Rakhotis, a seemingly unassuming coastal settlement destined for greatness.

Guided by the skilled hand of architect Dinocrates, the evolution of Rakhotis into Alexandria commenced. The city’s blueprint adopted an innovative grid pattern, featuring expansive avenues that would soon witness the convergence of diverse cultures, ideas, and commercial endeavors. Yet, Alexander’s imprint wasn’t confined to terra firma—the iconic Pharos Lighthouse, emerging from the waters just off the coast, emerged as a beacon of maritime prowess and a marvel of antiquity.

Ptolemaic Alexandria:

In the aftermath of Alexander the Great’s conquests, Ptolemy I Soter emerged as a formidable leader, establishing the Ptolemaic dynasty in Egypt. In 331 BCE, Alexandria was born under his vision, strategically positioned to become a maritime and cultural nexus. Ptolemy I laid the foundation for a dynasty that would elevate Alexandria into a symbol of Hellenistic brilliance.

Modern Library of Alexandria
Modern Library of Alexandria

Under Ptolemaic rule, Alexandria thrived both architecturally and culturally. The skyline boasted the iconic Pharos Lighthouse, while the Great Library became a global center for intellectual pursuits, drawing scholars from diverse corners of the ancient world. The Museion/Museum, an institution dedicated to the arts and sciences, further solidified Alexandria’s reputation as a hub of learning and creativity.

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Ptolemy II Philadelphus, succeeding his father, steered Alexandria to unprecedented heights during his reign (283–246 BCE). The city expanded in both influence and wealth, and Ptolemy II’s patronage of the arts, sciences, and literature continued to enrich Alexandria’s cultural landscape, ensuring its continued prominence.

Alexandria’s legacy reached its apex under Cleopatra VII, the last pharaoh of Ancient Egypt. Her intelligence and diplomatic acumen, combined with captivating alliances, drew global attention. Cleopatra’s intricate involvement with Mark Antony and Julius Caesar placed Alexandria at the center of a geopolitical storm that would shape its destiny.

Roman Alexandria:

In 30 BCE, with the conclusion of Cleopatra VII and Mark Antony’s era, Alexandria gracefully embraced Roman rule. Recognizing the city’s strategic importance, the Romans left an indelible mark on its landscape. Architectural wonders like the Serapeum, a temple devoted to the syncretic deity Serapis, and the magnificent amphitheater bore witness to the fusion of Roman engineering finesse with the artistic traditions of Egypt.

Alexandria Amphitheatre
Alexandria Amphitheatre

Under Roman governance, Alexandria continued to flourish as a cultural and intellectual hub. While the Great Library may have faced challenges in the preceding centuries, it retained its symbolic significance as a center for learning. Scholars, philosophers, and artists converged in the city, contributing to the amalgamation of Roman and Egyptian intellectual traditions.

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Situated at the crossroads of Europe and Africa, Alexandria emerged as a thriving trade center during the Roman period. The bustling port facilitated the exchange of commodities, ideas, and cultures. Although the Pharos Lighthouse endured the passage of time, it retained its role as a guiding light for sailors navigating the Mediterranean. In the Roman epoch, Alexandria became a captivating mosaic of religious diversity. The Serapeum, dedicated to the Greco-Egyptian deity Serapis, exemplified the syncretic nature of religious practices during this period. The city embraced a rich tapestry of beliefs, embodying the cosmopolitan spirit of the time.

Christianity arrives in Alexandria:

The tendrils of Christianity first found their way to Alexandria in the early centuries of the Common Era. Missionaries and disciples, inspired by the teachings of Jesus Christ, ventured into the city, introducing a spiritual paradigm that blended seamlessly with the diverse religious beliefs existing in Alexandria. The city’s intellectual curiosity and openness to religious syncretism provided fertile ground for the acceptance of this emerging faith.

Central to the narrative is the role of St. Mark the Evangelist, a disciple of Jesus Christ, who is traditionally believed to have played a significant part in bringing Christianity to Alexandria. Historical accounts suggest his arrival in the city around the mid-1st century, where he shared the Christian message with a population already immersed in various religious traditions. St. Mark’s teachings resonated with the people, laying the cornerstone for the Christian community in Alexandria.

As Christianity gained traction, Alexandria emerged as a hub for theological discussions and intellectual pursuits. The establishment of the Catechetical School in the 2nd century CE became a focal point for Christian scholarship. Figures like Clement of Alexandria and Origen contributed to the theological discourse, shaping the spiritual ethos of the city. By the 3rd century CE, Alexandria’s Christian community had grown significantly. The city played a crucial role in early Christian ecumenical councils, actively contributing to the formulation of key Christian doctrines. The foundation of the Coptic Orthodox Church, with its roots firmly embedded in Alexandria, marked a distinctive and enduring Christian tradition that persists in Egypt today.

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Alexandria bore witness to the construction of Christian landmarks, including churches and religious institutions. The Catacombs of Kom El Shoqafa, blending elements of both pagan and Christian practices, exemplify the coexistence and transition of religious beliefs during this era. Iconic structures such as the Church of St. Mark served as enduring symbols of Christianity’s presence in the city.

Catacombs of Kom El-Shoqafa
Catacombs of Kom El-Shoqafa

Alexandria embraces Islam:

The arrival of Islam in Alexandria unfolded in the 7th century CE, marking a significant moment in the city’s history. Once a melting pot of ancient civilizations and diverse belief systems, Alexandria embraced the monotheistic faith that had begun to spread across the Arabian Peninsula. The spiritual winds ushered in a message of unity, submission, and devotion that resonated with the people of Alexandria.

With the advent of Islam, the architectural landscape of Alexandria underwent a metamorphosis. Mosques, characterized by their iconic minarets and intricate geometric designs, began to punctuate the skyline. The city, once adorned with Greco-Roman structures, now bore the aesthetic and symbolic imprints of Islamic architecture. The Qaitbay Citadel, standing proudly along the Mediterranean, stands as a testament to this fusion of cultural and architectural influences.

Qaitbay Citadel
Qaitbay Citadel

Continuing Alexandria’s tradition as a hub of intellectual pursuits, the arrival of Islam ushered in an era of vibrant scholarship. The House of Wisdom, a beacon of learning during the Islamic Golden Age, became a nucleus for intellectual exchange. Alexandria’s scholars engaged in the translation of classical texts, preserving and disseminating knowledge that would echo through the corridors of time and contribute to the broader Islamic intellectual heritage.

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As Islam became an integral part of Alexandria’s identity, the city exemplified principles of religious tolerance and coexistence. The diverse mosaic of religious and cultural backgrounds found in Alexandria fostered a cosmopolitan society where Muslims, Christians, and Jews lived harmoniously, contributing to the city’s rich and diverse heritage.

Alexandria during the Ottoman Empire:

The Ottoman epoch unfolded in Alexandria in 1517, when Sultan Selim I secured victory over the Mamluks, extending Ottoman influence to Egypt. The city’s architectural panorama bore witness to this transition, embodying a synthesis of Ottoman and local design elements. Prominent structures like the Citadel of Qaitbay, repurposed during the Ottoman reign, silently narrated this period of imperial transformation.

Under Ottoman rule, Alexandria maintained its pivotal role as a commercial nexus, strategically positioned at the crossroads of trade routes linking Europe and the East. The city’s thriving port continued to facilitate the exchange of commodities and cultures, ensuring its standing as a bustling maritime hub. The Ottoman Empire’s maritime prowess played a pivotal role in sustaining Alexandria’s reputation as a global trade epicenter.

The Ottoman era in Alexandria fostered a cultural amalgamation, transforming the city into a melting pot of Ottoman, Arab, and indigenous influences. The cohabitation of diverse communities and faiths—Muslims, Christians, and Jews—contributed to the vibrant cultural fabric of Alexandria. Religious landmarks like the Abu Abbas al-Mursi Mosque, dating back to the Ottoman period, became enduring symbols of this harmonious coexistence of beliefs.

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The Ottoman reign in Alexandria left an enduring impact on the city’s artistic and intellectual landscape. Flourishing cultural and literary exchanges provided a fertile ground for poets, scholars, and artists to converge. This period witnessed the emergence of noteworthy Ottoman-era literature, sustaining Alexandria’s legacy as a hub for intellectual endeavors. While Alexandria flourished in many aspects during the Ottoman era, challenges were not uncommon. Economic shifts and geopolitical dynamics influenced the city’s trajectory, prompting transformations that mirrored the broader changes within the Ottoman Empire.

Alexandria in the time of Mohamed Ali:

At the helm of Egypt as the Ottoman governor, Mohamed Ali Pasha rose to prominence in the early 1800s. His governance was characterized by a commitment to modernization, and this vision extended beyond Cairo, reaching Alexandria. Mohamed Ali’s rule ushered in an era of innovation, setting the stage for significant changes in the coastal city. One of the hallmark achievements during Mohamed Ali Pasha’s rule was the architectural revival of Alexandria. Drawing inspiration from European urban planning, he initiated a series of construction projects that redefined the city’s skyline. Modern infrastructure, including roads, bridges, and public spaces, became integral components of Alexandria’s urban fabric, reflecting the governor’s commitment to progress.

Under Mohamed Ali’s leadership, Alexandria experienced a notable economic resurgence. Building upon its existing status as a vital trade hub. The governor implemented further developments in the city’s port, solidifying its position as a crucial gateway for international commerce. This economic boom attracted a diverse array of merchants, fostering a cosmopolitan atmosphere that became synonymous with Alexandria.

Mohamed Ali Pasha’s dedication to progress extended beyond the economic realm to the cultural and educational spheres. Establishing schools and institutions, he sought to elevate the intellectual standing of Alexandria’s residents. This commitment to education laid the groundwork for the city’s enduring significance as a hub of learning and enlightenment. Recognizing the strategic importance of Alexandria, Mohamed Ali invested in fortifying its military infrastructure. Defensive structures and fortifications were erected to safeguard the city, ensuring its resilience in the face of potential threats. These measures underscored Mohamed Ali’s commitment to securing Alexandria’s position in a rapidly changing geopolitical landscape.

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The legacy of Mohamed Ali Pasha’s rule is imprinted on the very essence of Alexandria. His vision for modernization, economic prosperity, and cultural enrichment left an indelible mark on the city. The echoes of his initiatives continue to reverberate through Alexandria’s streets, serving as a reminder of the transformative era under his leadership.

Alexandria’s journey from Mohamed Ali till King Farouk: 

Following Mohamed Ali Pasha’s tenure, Alexandria continued its trajectory as a central hub within Egypt. The modernization initiatives initiated by Mohamed Ali persisted, shaping the city’s urban fabric. The establishment of essential infrastructure, educational institutions, and economic reforms set the stage for Alexandria’s evolution into a thriving and forward-looking metropolis. Over the years, Alexandria underwent a significant metamorphosis with urban expansion and modernization initiatives mirroring broader societal changes in Egypt. The cityscape underwent a rejuvenation, witnessing the construction of new thoroughfares, bridges, and public spaces. This transformation not only enhanced residents’ quality of life but also positioned Alexandria as a beacon of progress and development.

The economic landscape of Alexandria experienced dynamic shifts during this period, emphasizing industrialization and economic diversification. Leveraging its strategic port location, the city thrived in trade and commerce, emerging as an industrial powerhouse. Alexandria’s economic boom attracted investments, fostering opportunities and prosperity for its burgeoning population. Simultaneous to its economic growth, Alexandria experienced a vibrant cultural renaissance. The city’s cultural scene flourished with the emergence of artists, writers, and intellectuals who contributed to its rich artistic fabric. Cafés and literary salons became vibrant hubs for intellectual exchange, cultivating a creative spirit that defined Alexandria’s cultural character.

During World War II:

World War II brought unprecedented challenges to Alexandria, transforming it into a strategic military center. The city displayed resilience amidst the war’s impact. Post-war, Egypt entered a new era under the rule of King Farouk, and Alexandria continued to play a crucial role in the nation’s political, economic, and cultural arenas. Despite facing challenges such as economic fluctuations and political changes, Alexandria maintained its trajectory of progress, modernization, and cultural vitality. This enduring legacy became integral to the city’s identity, shaping its trajectory into the subsequent era.

Since 1952 till now:

The Egyptian Revolution of 1952 marked a pivotal moment in Alexandria’s history, where the monarchy gave way to a republic. The revolutionary spirit reverberated through the city, heralding sweeping changes in governance, politics, and societal structures. Alexandria, a melting pot of cultures, became a canvas for the aspirations of a newly independent Egypt. In the aftermath of the revolution, Alexandria underwent a notable phase of urban renewal. The cityscape witnessed a transformation with modernization projects that encompassed the development of infrastructure, transportation networks, and public spaces. This urban renaissance reshaped Alexandria, aligning it with the dynamics of a rapidly evolving world.

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Throughout the latter half of the 20th century, Alexandria retained its role as a center of cultural vibrancy. The city’s rich tapestry of arts, literature, and intellectual pursuits continued to flourish. Eminent artists, writers, and thinkers emerged, contributing to Alexandria’s legacy as a cultural hub. Cafes, once the meeting points of literary giants, continued to be spaces for intellectual exchange.

Alexandria’s strategic position as a major port remained pivotal to its economic vibrancy. The city retained its status as a critical hub for international trade, fostering economic growth and cultural exchange. As global connectivity expanded, Alexandria evolved into a dynamic economic center, attracting investment and diversifying its industries.

The latter part of the 20th century and the early 21st century presented challenges that tested Alexandria’s resilience. Economic fluctuations, political shifts, and urban complexities posed obstacles, yet the city’s spirit persevered. Alexandria confronted these challenges with adaptability, evolving without losing sight of its rich historical identity.

Today, Alexandria stands as a dynamic and multifaceted metropolis, where the echoes of its ancient past harmonize with the pulse of the modern era. The city’s streets narrate a story of adaptability, innovation, and an unwavering commitment to its diverse heritage. Contemporary Alexandria is a vibrant mosaic where history and progress intertwine seamlessly.


In our exploration of Alexandria’s captivating journey from the era of Alexander the Great to the present day, we find ourselves immersed in the enduring tale of a city that has stood resilient against the tides of time. Alexandria, an intricate mosaic of ancient allure, cultural convergence, and contemporary dynamism, stands as a living testament to the rhythmic cadence of civilizations.

As we conclude this odyssey through Alexandria’s rich history, we acknowledge that the city’s narrative remains an ongoing story, continuously evolving. Each chapter, whether from the Hellenistic age or the present era, has played a role in shaping the distinct identity of this coastal metropolis. The city’s tenacity, flexibility, and cultural wealth continue to serve as an inspiration, encouraging us to marvel at the enduring essence of a city that has played a pivotal role in the grand tapestry of human civilization.

Join us in celebrating Alexandria—an ever-evolving city where history breathes and thrives, transcending the boundaries of time. Book one of our Egypt travel packages that includes Alexandria or one of our Alexandria day tours to explore it magnificent highlights.

3 Responses
  1. […] Alexandria is Egypt’s second-largest city and window on the Mediterranean, with several historical sights and the stunning new Bibliotheca Alexandrina. It is the country’s main summer attraction for Egyptians escaping the summer heat and looking for a place to spend their summer vacation. The tourist attractions include Roman and Greek monuments, Catacombs of Kom El-Shoqafa, Bibliotheca Alexandria, Qaitbay’s Castle, and Qasr Al Montazah (Al Montazah Palace). […]